When I say “PaaS” what comes to mind? If you’re like most people I talk to, you think of public cloud platforms for modern web apps. So I’ll forgive you if you didn’t realize that things are different now!
The first generation of PaaS products had a few things in common. They were public cloud only. You had to build apps with the runtime constraints in mind. They only ran statelesss web apps. Linux was the only runtime. When Cloud Foundry first came out, it checked most of those boxes. But over the years, Pivotal Cloud Foundry (PCF) evolved to do much more.
Many people still think of those first-generation PaaS constraints when considering PCF, and specifically, the Pivotal Application Service (PAS). So, I thought it’d be fun to look at non-traditional workloads. In this brief five-part series, I’m going to show off the following scenarios:
- Part 1 – Deploying and running Docker images
- Part 2 – Setting up TCP routable services
- Part 3 – Running batch and scheduled jobs
- Part 4 – Configuring data streaming apps
- Part 5 – Deploying .NET Framework apps to Windows Server
Deploying and running Docker images
Most Cloud Foundry users depend on buildpacks. Developers push source code, and the buildpack pulls in dependencies, frameworks, and runtimes, then builds a tarball that’s deployed as an OCI-compatible container in Cloud Foundry. One major benefit of the buildpacks model is that the platform brings the root file system to your app. You’re not responsible for finding secure base images or maintaining that “layer” of the stack. But all that said, some folks like using Docker images as their packaging unit whether manually created (don’t do that) or as the output from a continuous integration pipeline.
It doesn’t matter if Cloud Foundry builds the container or you send in a Docker image, it’s all treated the same by the platform. At runtime, the orchestrator executes all containers using runC, the same spec used by Docker and Kubernetes. Let’s see this in action.
You can try this for free on Pivotal Web Services if you don’t have a Cloud Foundry available. I’m using a different environment, but they all behave the same. That’s the point! After you cf login to Cloud Foundry, it’s time to push a container.
How about we start with a Node.js web app. Here’s an Express app built by the folks at Bitnami. We can actually push this to Cloud Foundry with a single command.
cf push nodedocker --docker-image bitnami/node-example:0.0.1 -i 2 -m 128M
In that command, notice a couple things. First, I’m using the –docker-image flag. Since I’m hitting a public image in the public Docker Hub, no credentials or anything are needed. PCF also works with private images, and private registries. Otherwise, it’s a standard command that asks for a single instance, and 128M of memory for each instance. Within ten seconds, you’ll have two routable instances ready to process traffic.
Seriously. That’s amazing. And PCF doesn’t “mess with” the image. Whatever layers are in your Docker image are what run in Cloud Foundry. One thing PCF *does* do is volume mount a directory that contains a unique certificate for the container. This regularly-rotated credential (up to hourly!) is used for things like mTLS. You can see it by SSH-ing into the container and doing printenv or browsing the file system. Yes, you can actually SSH into containers whether built by the platform or via Docker images. No black boxes here.
Deploying an app’s only half the story. Does PCF treat the running app the same way if it was packaged as a Docker image? Yup. Jumping to the PCF Apps Manager UX, you see our running app.
If you look closely, you see that we indicate the app type, in this case, that it’s from a Docker image.
More importantly, the platform bestows all the operational goodness on this app as any other. For example, all the logs from each app instance are collected and aggregated.
You can add environment variables. Configure auto-scaling. Monitor app and container health metrics. Bind to marketplace services. All the things that make PCF a great runtime for apps make it a great runtime for apps packaged as Docker images.
So try it out yourself. If you’re building custom apps, PCF is a great destination regardless of how you want to ship code. Stay tuned tomorrow for fun network routing demonstration.